13.8 billion years ago, the Big Bang occurred. Accordingly, this is the distance that observable universe may extend, that is 13.8 billion light-years. We may assume further that the space-time beyond that distance may be another universe and so there might be multi-universes or multiverse.
We argue about the Big Bang that generated our universe. What if there was more than one Big Bang? This assumption may lead to the existence of multiverse.
For the religious readers, I should point out that the conflict between Genesis as viewed by the Bible and the Big-Bang as viewed by the scientists will not be solved here. There is no compatibility between the two. It is enough if I mention that there are basic differences in the order of events, in timescale and even about the future prediction of our destiny. On one hand God will protect us and there will be resurrection in future and on the other hand Earth will cool down and we’ll perish. The Bible tells us that the universe was supernaturally created by God and the Big-Bang tells us that it was naturalistically created and evolved. We cannot bridge the billion years of creation versus thousands of years according to the Bible.
It is fascinating to listen to the explanations of orthodox physicists. Some would try to explain that there is no contradiction as God created also the Big-Bang or God’s day maybe millions of years. Other orthodox physicists would simply accept the conflict and will not try to combine faith with scientific evidence. It is a common belief, though, that there was a starting point to creation. It is impossible to bridge between the different views regarding creation. It is especially hard for the orthodox group to accept the facts of archaeological evidences of Dinosaurs, Neanderthal men or Darwinian theories.
We live in a three dimensional world or four if we consider space and time. What if there are more than four dimensions? Accordingly, we might have other worlds in different dimensions that may lead to the concept of Parallel Universes.
Is the speed of light the same everywhere? Or can space/matter travel faster than the speed of light?
Under the special theory of relativity, a particle with subluminal velocity needs infinite energy to accelerate to the speed of light.
What if we have unusually distorted regions of space-time where matter can reach distant locations in less time than light could reach in an undistorted space-time?
In this case we have a transmission faster than speed of light.
Background and known facts.
A light year is a unit of astronomical distance equivalent to the distance that light travels in one year, 1 light year = 9.4605284 × 1015 meters or 9.4607 × 1012 km (nearly 6 trillion miles or 9 trillion km). 9460730472580800 metres exactly. Light travels at 300,000 kilometers (186,000 miles) per second. Speed of light will have its known and accepted value only if measured in a vacuum. The speed of light is independent of the motion of the observer and it does not vary with time or place.
Light is slowed in air, water and glass. The slowdown is the refractive index of that medium.
Particle of light, the photon, is massless or very small if it is not zero. If the mass isn’t zero the speed of light would not be constant. Standard time is adjusted by adding or subtracting a leap second from time to time. There is a slowing down of Earth’s rotation by about 1/100,000 of a second per year due to tidal forces between Earth, Sun, and Moon.
The theories and basic measurements related to light-year are widely accepted, however when we go out of this galaxy there might be many inaccuracies and further calculation and validations are required in order to maintain those theories and calculations developed for our galaxy. When we go out of our universe those calculation might be inaccurate or even obsolete.
In his new theory, Einstein argued that the speed of light is changing. In his book [Einstein, 1920] “Relativity: the special and general theory” he wrote: according to the general theory of relativity, the law of the constancy of the speed of light in vacuum, which constitutes one of the two fundamental assumptions in the special theory of relativity cannot claim any unlimited validity. A curvature of rays of light can only take place when the speed of propagation of light varies with position. In special relativity, the speed of light is constant when measured in any inertial frame. In general relativity, the appropriate generalization is that the speed of light is constant in any freely falling reference frame.
There are billions of people on Earth. Our Earth orbits the Sun in our Solar System. Our Sun is one star among the billions in the Milky Way Galaxy. Our Milky Way Galaxy is one among the billions of galaxies in our Universe. A galaxy is a large collection of stars, gas, and dust kept together by gravity.
A wormhole, or Einstein-Rosen Bridge, is a hypothetical topological feature that would fundamentally be a shortcut through space-time. A wormhole is a theoretical passage through space-time that could create shortcuts for long journeys across the universe. It is much like a tunnel with two ends, each in separate points in space-time. A space-time tunnel could exist in the middle of the Milky Way and we could travel through it. Wormholes are areas where space and time are being bent so that distant points are now closer together. Einstein predicted the existence of wormhole in his theory of General Relativity in 1935.
The Möbius strip is a surface with only one side and only one boundary.
What if -Theory.
We assume that Light-Year (LY) is a constant, or LY=c where c=constant. In general terms we may assume that LY=f(c, x1, x2,… ,xn) where x1, x2,… ,xn are variables that might be zero, meaning that LY=c would coincide with the acceptable terminology or calculations.
However, what if one of the xi-s has a non-zero value?
This assumption may obviously affect the value of LY. Such xi-s may be those parameters that may slow down or accelerate the speed of light, thus affecting LY.
What factors maybe in the group of xi -s?
The answer might be: Wormholes, bubbles, black holes, the expansion of the universe, etc. Those and other parameters are to be considered for time distortions within and among galaxies and/or multiverses.
Assume that the normal calculation says that in order to get from earth(e) to planet(b) the measured distance(d) is LY(k), which corresponds to n years in time(t).
d(e,b) = k or in time t(d(e,b)) = n
My hypothesis is that this formula is not commutative, that is:
d(e,b) ≠ d(b,e) especially if measured by two observers one from e and one from b.
However, even if they are equal or very close to equality, the time may be significantly different
t(d(e,b)) ≠ t(d(b,e)) ≠ n
What if an observer on planet-b can get here to earth in half time, namely in n/2 years? What does this mean? Obviously it should mean that the original calculation was wrong, mainly because we assumed that LY is a constant.
Let us assume that within the path between earth which is in our galaxy and planet-b in another galaxy or universe there are chains of black holes and/or wormholes, which are kept together by combined gravitational forces and all that is laying on a path within a complex multiple Möbius strip.
In this case, the real distance between earth and planet-b would be much less than the calculated LY that follows the Möbius strip path where light is bent according to the gravitational forces along the Möbius strip.
If and when we are able verify the existence of any element from x1, x2,… ,xn, then we will be able to prove this theory about the inaccuracy of LY calculation.
If so, then we might reach stars that are unreachable today in much less time than calculated.